The Richmond data by school ranged from surprisingly high to astronomically high:
The 2014 RPS budget did not break out Richmond’s expenditures for substitutes; the 2015 budget showed $101.8 million for “instr. class staff” and $4.104 million (3.9% of the “instr.” budget) for “n-substitute instr prof.”
Today I checked the 2017 adopted budget. It shows:
The 2015 actual expenditure for substitutes came to 5.6%, well beyond the budgeted 3.9%.
As well, the budget for FY 17 shows 4.2% for substitutes (going up, it seems).